Solving the Global Opioid Crisis: Incorporating Genetic Addiction Risk Assessment with Personalized Dopaminergic Homeostatic Therapy and Awareness Integration Therapy

Foojan Zeine, Nicole Jafari, David Baron, Abdalla Bowirrat, Albert Pinhasov, Brian Norling, Kathleen Carter Martinez, Mohammad Nami, Nima Manavi, Keerthy Sunder, David M. Rabin, Debasis Bagchi, Mark S Gold, Daniel Sipple, Mojtaba Barzegar, Jothsna Bodhanapati, Waseem Khader, Paul Carney, Catherine A. Dennen, Ashim Gupta, Igor Elman, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Edward J. Modestino, Panayotis K. Thanos,Colin Hanna, Thomas McLaughlin, Jean Lud Cadet, Diwanshu Soni, Eric R. Braverman, Debmalya Barh, John Giordano, Drew Edwards, J. Wesson Ashford, Marjorie C. Gondre-Lewis, Elizebeth Gilley, Kevin T Murphy, KaiUwe Lewandrowski, Alireza Sharafshah, Milan Makale, Kenneth Blum


Objectives: The opioid crisis in the last few decades has mounted to a global level, impacting all areas of socioeconomic, demographic, geographic, and cultural boundaries. Traditional treatments have not been deemed to show the degree of efficacy necessary to address the crisis. The authors of this review paper have set forth an unprecedented and in-depth look into multi-factorial determinants that have contributed to the opioid crisis becoming global and multi-faceted. Methods: For this narrative review/opinion article, we searched PsychINFO, PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases to identify relevant articles on topics including the “opioid crisis,” “opioid mechanisms,” “genetics and epigenetics,” “neuropharmacology,” and “clinical aspects of opioid treatment and prevention.” Since this was not a systematic review the articles selected could represent unitential bias.
Results: Despite some success achieved through Opioid Substitution Therapy (OST) in harm reduction, the annual mortality toll in the US alone surpasses 106,699 individuals, a figure expected to climb to 165,000 by 2025. Data from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration’s (SAMHSA) National Survey on Drug Abuse and Health (NSDUH) reveals that approximately 21.4% of individuals in the US engaged in illicit drug use in 2020, with 40.3 million individuals aged 12 or older experiencing a (SUD). Provisional figures from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) indicate a troubling 15% increase in overdose deaths in 2021, rising from 93,655 in 2020 to 107,622, with opioids accounting for roughly 80,816 of these deaths.
Conclusions: We advocate reevaluating the “standard of care” and shifting towards inducing dopamine homeostasis by manipulating key neurotransmitter systems within the brain’s reward cascade. We propose a paradigm shift towards a novel “standard of care” that begins with incorporating Genetic Addiction Risk Severity (GARS) testing to assess pre-addiction risk and vulnerability to opioid-induced addiction; emphasis should be placed on inducing dopamine homeostasis through safe and non-addictive alternatives like KB220, and comprehensive treatment approaches that address psychological, spiritual, and societal aspects of addiction through Awareness Integration Therapy (AIT).

Published on: June 20, 2024
Citation: Zeine F, Jafari N, Baron D, Bowirrat A, Pinhasov A, et al. 2024. Solving the Global
Opioid Crisis: Incorporating Genetic Addiction Risk Assessment with Personalized Dopaminergic Homeostatic Therapy and Awareness Integration Therapy. J Addict Psychiatry 8(1): 50-95.